The Baldr engine is the first of its kind as a standardized hybrid engine tailored for small launch vehicles. The engine is vacuum optimized for upper stage modules and runs a 3d-printed thermoplastic fuel grain and an N₂O oxidizer.
Hybrid systems avoid significant hazards of manufacturing, shipping and handling compared to solid rocket motors, by storing the oxidizer and the fuel separately. Combining the high thrust to weight ratio of the solid fuel grain and the lightweight hybrid system makes the engine ideal for small satellite launch vehicles
Combining the Best of Liquids and Solids
Hybrid rockets employing liquid oxidizer and solid fuel grain answers to cost, safety, reliability, and environmental impact concerns that have become as prominent as performance in recent years
Jerry R. Cook
Deputy Program Manager Space Launch System, NASA
Previous proposals for hybrid rockets have focused on increasing the burning surface to reach the desired performance, which has caused an increase in weight and volume
Producing the fuel grain using 3D printing lets us build one layer at a time, like stacking compact disks. Pre-determined variations in power would be handy if a space launch called for greater acceleration at a certain point in its flight and less acceleration at another point
3D Printed Fuel Cells
In traditional hybrid rocket engines the rate of burn of the fuel grain is controlled almost solely by the shape of the bore hole. Fuel cells produced with additive manufacturing technology increases the surface area of the cell while maintaining a high fuel concentration, providing a faster burn rate and more propulsive power
Using 3D-printed fuel grain, burn profiles can be tailored to specific use cases, missions and payloads by varying the concentration of material in different parts of the fuel cylinder
Solstorm Rocket Propulsion grew out from propulsion research at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology supported by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) and KONGSBERG Defence and Aerospace
Propulse NTNU develops integrated rocket systems, conducts propulsion research, produces academic papers, and tests its technological capabilities competitively in the Spaceport America Cup in New Mexico, US.
Mass at lift-off:
2 400 mm
3 000 m (10 000 ft)
Solid Fuel COTS Engine
Maiden flight over Trondheim
The first rocket was launched in 2018 as preliminary testing of avionics, flight computer, and parachute deployment system later used in the Sleipner rocket.