The Baldr engine is the first of its kind as a standardized hybrid engine tailored for small launch vehicles and orbit insertion kick stages

Hybrid Propulsion

Hybrid systems avoid significant hazards of manufacturing, shipping and handling compared to solid rocket motors, by storing the oxidizer and the fuel separately. Combining the high thrust to weight ratio of the solid fuel grain and the lightweight hybrid system makes the engine ideal for small satellite launch vehicles


Combining the Best of Liquids and Solids

Hybrid rockets employing liquid oxidizer and solid fuel grain answers to cost, safety, reliability, and environmental impact concerns that have become as prominent as performance in recent years

Jerry R. Cook
Deputy Program Manager Space Launch System, NASA

Previous proposals for hybrid rockets have focused on increasing the burning surface to reach the desired performance, which has caused an increase in weight and volume

Producing the fuel grain using 3D printing lets us build one layer at a time, like stacking compact disks. Pre-determined variations in power would be handy if a space launch called for greater acceleration at a certain point in its flight and less acceleration at another point

3D Printed Fuel Cells

In traditional hybrid rocket engines the rate of burn of the fuel grain is controlled almost solely by the shape of the bore hole. Fuel cells produced with additive manufacturing technology increases the surface area of the cell while maintaining a high fuel concentration, providing a faster burn rate and more propulsive power

Using 3D-printed fuel grain, burn profiles can be tailored to specific use cases, missions and payloads by varying the concentration of material in different parts of the fuel cylinder

Solstorm Rocket Propulsion grew out from propulsion research at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology supported by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) and KONGSBERG Defence and Aerospace

Propulse NTNU develops integrated rocket systems, conducts propulsion research, produces academic papers, and tests its technological capabilities competitively in the Spaceport America Cup in New Mexico, US.

Additional information on hybrid technology

"Hybrid Propellants"

"Hybrid Powered Rocket to Space"

"Hybrid rockets - Combining the Best of Liquids and Solids"

"Hybrid Engine – Engine for the Future"